Recently switched your network from private to public perhaps? (you may not have done it intentionally)
The firewall has several profiles: public, private, domain. which allows you to set different rules based on what network you're on (private lan, public wifi, work etc)
If the profile of your primary network connection changed, then that may have affected which rules applies and could explain what happened.
I doubt it's the .exe stuff you did since Sonarr doesn't run from the temp folder.
Either way, it's working now